Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Fields and Antenna Systems

Lecturer: Michel T. Ivrlac

Target Audience: Master EI and MSCE

Language: English

Next Exam: tbd. (no responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information)

Additional Information: TUMonline and Moodle

Lectures/Tutorials in Summer Semester 2024

Tuesday 09:45 – 11:15 N1135
Friday 13:45 – 14:45 N1090
First lecture: Tuesday, 2024-04-16


1. The principles of the classical electromagnetic field theory
- Forces, fields and inertial frames
- The magnetic field is a relativistic effect
- Explicit field formulation (Feynman)
- Differential field equations (Maxwell)
- When to use quantum electrodynamics
- The great conservation laws: charge, energy, and momentum
- Uniqueness theorem for the field solutions
- The equivalence of energy and mass (Einstein)
- Scalar and vector potential
- Gauge transformations
- The wave equation
- Special relativity (Lorentz-covariance, 4-vector notation)
- Field invariants
- Relativistic effects
- Duality transformations
- Solution of the field equations
- Sinusoidal time dependence and complex fields

2. Dipole Radiation
- Hertzian dipole
- Radiated power and radiation resistance
- Antenna pattern and directivity
- Effective area
- The reciprocity theorem
- Antenna current distribution
- Effective antenna length
- Long dipoles
- Antenna efficiency
- Canonical minimum scattering

3. Antenna Array Theory
- Element coupling part I (partial-field analysis)
- Radiated power
- Antenna pattern
- Optimum excitation
- Directivity and superdirectivity
- Antenna array efficiency
- Arrays of dipoles
- A theory of the array of isotrops

4. Multi-antenna systems
- Multiport model
- Element coupling part II (full-field analysis)
- Thermal equilibrium antenna noise
- Non-equilibrium receiver noise
- Matching and decoupling
- Near-field MIMO Systems (full interaction)
- Far-field MIMO Systems (partial interaction)

Mathematical preliminaries (reviewed in lecture):
- vectors
- general coordinates
- differential vector operators
- vector integration
- integral theorems (Gauss, Stokes, Green)
- gradient fields and scalar potential
- solenoidal fields and vector potential
- Lemma of Poincare