## Random Walks for Decentralized Learning

#### Beschreibung

Fully decentralized schemes do not require a central entity and have been studied in [1, 2]. These works aim to reach consensus on a desirable machine learning model among all clients. We can mainly distinguish between i) gossip algorithms [3] where clients share their result with all neighbors, naturally leading to high communication complexities, and ii) random walk approaches like [4, 5] where the model is communicated only to a specific neighbor until matching certain convergence criteria. Such random walk approaches are used in federated learning to reduce the communication load in the network and at the clients’ side.

The main task of the student is to study the work in [5], which additionally accounts for the heterogeneity of the clients’ data. Further, drawbacks and limitations of the proposed approach should be determined.

[1] J. B. Predd, S. B. Kulkarni, and H. V. Poor, “Distributed learning in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 56–69, 2006.

[2] S. Boyd, N. Parikh, E. Chu, B. Peleato, J. Eckstein et al., “Distributed optimization and statistical learning via the alternating direction method of multipliers,” Found. Trends Mach. Learn., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–122, 2011.

[3] S. S. Ram, A. Nedi ?c, and V. V. Veeravalli, “Asynchronous gossip algorithms for stochastic optimization,” in IEEE Conf. Decis. Control. IEEE, 2009, pp. 3581–3586.

[4] D. Needell, R. Ward, and N. Srebro, “Stochastic gradient descent, weighted sampling, and the randomized kaczmarz algorithm,” Adv. Neural Inf. Process. Syst., vol. 27, 2014.

[5] G. Ayache, V. Dassari, and S. E. Rouayheb, “Walk for learning: A random walk approach for federated learning from heterogeneous data,” arXiv preprint arXiv:2206.00737, 2022.

#### Voraussetzungen

- Machine Learning and Statistics

- Information Theory

#### Betreuer:

## MAB-Based Efficient Distributed ML on the Cloud

**Stichworte:**

Distributed Machine Learning (ML), Multi-Armed Bandits (MABs), Cloud Simulations (AWS, GCP, ...)

#### Beschreibung

We consider the problem of running a distributed machine learning algorithm on the cloud. This imposes several challenges. In particular, cloud instances may have different performances/speeds. To fully leverage the performance of the instances, we want to characterize their speed and potentially use the fastest ones. To explore the speed of the instances while exploiting them (assigning computational tasks), we use the theory of multi-armed bandits (MABs).

The goal of the research intership is to start by implementing existing theoretical algorithms [1] and possibly adapting them based on the experimental observations.

[1] M. Egger, R. Bitar, A. Wachter-Zeh and D. Gündüz, Efficient Distributed Machine Learning via Combinatorial Multi-Armed Bandits, submitted to IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), 2022.

#### Voraussetzungen

- Information Theory
- Machine Learning Basics
- Python (Intermediate Level)

#### Betreuer:

## Private and Secure Federated Learning

#### Beschreibung

In federated learning, a machine learning model shall be trained on private user data with the help of a central server, the so-called federator. This setting differs from other machine learning settings in that the user data shall not be shared with the federator for privacy reasons and/or to decrease the communication load of the system.

Even though only intermediate results are shared, extra care is necessary to guarantee data privacy. An additional challenge arises if the system includes malicious users that breach protocol and send corrupt computation results.

The goal of this work is to design, implement and analyze coding- and information-theoretic solutions for privacy and security in federated learning.

#### Voraussetzungen

- Coding Theory (e.g., Channel Coding)
- Information Theory
- Machine Learning Basics